Build Status Stable Dev

Self-contained, Well-Tested, Well-Documented Analytical Solutions of Quantum Mechanical Equations.


Run the following code on the REPL or Jupyter Notebook to install this package.

]add Antique

Or specify the version like ]add Antique@0.7.0 to install a specific version.

Usage & Examples

Install Antique.jl for the first use and run using Antique before each use.

using Antique

The energy E(), wavefunction ψ(), potential V() and some other functions will be exported. Try giving other function names like using Antique: V as potential, E as energy, ψ as wavefuntion, HydrogenAtom if you want to avoid a function names conflict. Here are examples in hydrogen-like atom. The analytical notation of energy (eigen value of the Hamiltonian) is written as

E_n = -\frac{Z^2}{2n^2} E_\mathrm{h}.

Hydrogen atom has symbol $\mathrm{H}$ and atomic number 1 ($Z=1$). Therefore the ground state ($n=1$) energy is $-\frac{1}{2} E_\mathrm{h}$.

H = HydrogenAtom(Z=1)
# output> -0.5

Helium cation has symbol $\mathrm{He}^+$ and atomic number 2 ($Z=2$). Therefore the ground state ($n=1$) energy is $-2 E_\mathrm{h}$.

He⁺ = HydrogenAtom(Z=2)
# output> -2.0

There are more examples on each model page.

Supported Models


This is an example of a variational calculation for the hydrogen atom based on Thijssen(2007). We check the accuracy of the numerical solution by comparison with the analytical solution. Comparing wavefunctions is a little tough, but Antique.jl makes it easy. You can extend it to excited states ($n>1$) as well as ground state ($n=1$). Thus, Antique.jl is useful for testing numerical methods. We hope many numerical methods to be developed using Antique.jl.

# calculations based on Thijssen(2007)
using LinearAlgebra
α = [13.00773, 1.962079, 0.444529, 0.1219492] 
nₘₐₓ = length(α)
S = [(pi/(α[i]+α[j]))^(3/2) for i=1:nₘₐₓ, j=1:nₘₐₓ]
T = [3*pi^(3/2)*α[i]*α[j]/(α[i]+α[j])^(5/2) for i=1:nₘₐₓ, j=1:nₘₐₓ]
V = [-2*pi/(α[i]+α[j]) for i=1:nₘₐₓ, j=1:nₘₐₓ]
H = T + V
E, C = eigen(Symmetric(H),Symmetric(S))

# energy
using Antique: E as energy, ψ, HydrogenAtom
HA = HydrogenAtom(Z=1, Eₕ=1.0, a₀=1.0, mₑ=1.0, ℏ=1.0)
println("Numerical : ", E[1])
println("Analytical: ", energy(HA,n=1))

# wave function
using CairoMakie
f = Figure()
ax = Axis(f[1,1], xlabel=L"$r$", ylabel=L"$\psi(r,0,0)$",  limits=(0,4,0,0.6))
l1 = lines!(ax, 0:0.01:10, r -> sum(C[:,1] .* exp.(-α*r^2)))
l2 = lines!(ax, 0:0.01:10, r -> real(ψ(HA,r,0,0)), color=:black, linestyle=:dash, label="Antique.jl")
axislegend(ax, [l1,l2], ["Numerical, Thijssen(2007)","Analytical, Antique.jl"], position=:rt)
Numerical : -0.49927840566748566
Analytical: -0.5

Future Works

The candidate models are listed on the Wikipedia page of List of quantum-mechanical systems with analytical solutions. Please submit your requests and suggestions as issues on GitHub.

Developer's Guide

This is the guideline for adding new models. Adding a new model may take from a few days to a week due to reference search, test implementation, and writing documentation.

  1. First, please submit a new issue or or comment here. I will assign you to the issue. We need to find orthodox references (textbooks or papers, not Wikipedia) for the analytical solutions (eigenvalues and eigenfunctions) before the development. This will take more time than you think.
  2. Fork the repository on GitHub.
  3. Clone the forked repository to your local machine by Git.
  4. Please create 3 files:
files comments
src/ModelName.jl Write the source codes and docstrings in this file. The most helpful examples are harmonic oscillators for one-dimensional systems and hydrogen atoms for three-dimensional systems. We recommend that you copy these files. First we need to create a structure struct ModelName with the same name as the model name (The best way is Find & Replace). Because the function names conflict, you must always give the struct ModelName as the fisrt argument to V, E, ψ and other functions. Multi-dispatch avoids conflicts. We recommend using Revice.jl while coding. Run include("./dev/revice.jl") on the REPL or use dev.ipynb.
test/ModelName.jl Write test code in this file. At a minimum, please check the normalization and the orthogonality of eigenfunction using QuadGK.jl. Please also do tests for eigenvalue (for example, calculate the expectation values of the Hamiltonian (energy) using the eigenfunctions and check that these values match the eigenvalues).
docs/src/ Write documnetation in this file. Include at least the definition of the Hamiltonian and the analytical solutions (eigenvalues and eigenfunctions). Calls a docstring in the source code (src/ModelName.jl) .
  1. Please rewrite 5 files:
files comments
src/Antique.jl Add the new model name :ModelName to the models = [...] array in this file. : is required at the beginning.
docs/make.jl Add the new model into pages=[...] in this file.
test/runtests.jl Change for model in [...] in this file. Please test all models before pull requests. Add the new model to the list of supported models.
docs/ Add the new model to the list of supported models.
  1. Execute include("./dev/test.jl") to run tests. It will take few minutes to complete.
  2. Execute include("./dev/docs.jl") to compile documents. HTML files (docs/build/*.html) will be generated. Please check them with Chrome or any other web browsers.
  3. Commit and Push the codes.
  4. Submit a pull request on GitHub.


Thanks to all contributors. This package was named by @KB-satou and @ultimatile.