The KFormsJulia package defines differential operators 𝑑, δ, Δ and apply methods for continous k-forms.

Applying k-forms at a point in a subspace over a specified volume ( area ) is a way of adding up little differential quantities defined for some arbitrary function.

A k-form is represented as a KVector with a ZForm field. The ZForm is a 0-form, i.e. a scalar function. Applying the differential operator to a 0-form will result in a 1-form, or equivalently a 1-vector with a 0-form holding the derivative of the original 0-form as it's field. To get a value you need to apply the k-form at a point in space to a p-vector. This "measures" the p-vector with the ZForm function at the point via a contraction with the k-form.

Exterior Calculus

Support for Exterior Calculus is provided.

k-forms are supported, although notation will be different. For greatest overlap with Geometric Algebra, the basis vectors for 1-forms are the same as the primary basis 1-blades.

The main operator is 𝑑 which implements the Exterior Derivative Applying 𝑑 to a k-form results in a (k+1)-form.

On a scalar function, 𝑑 produces a form with the action of a directional derivative.

Together with a couple more axioms this defines 𝑑in terms of axioms.

Utilizing the most trivial bijection between 1-blades and coordinate differentials, KVectors can be used to apply the Exterior Derivative to any k-form in terms of local coordinates


Most of the heavy lifting is done by the Multivectors package. This is a Geometric Algebra flavoured implementation of k-forms.


Easier to demonstrate with some code than mathematical word salad.

julia> using Multivectors, KVectors, KForms

julia> @generate_basis("++",false,true,true)

Simple 1-form α = xe₁ + ye₂

# scalar function for each 0-form ( there are two ) and first partial derivatives in ZForm{2}  
# the 2 in ZForm{2} indicates the manifold (surface) is 2 dimensional
# the 0-forms each take 2 coordinate which are called during apply
julia> α = e₁(ZForm{2}((x,y)->x, [(x,y)->1, (x,y)->0])) + 
           e₂(ZForm{2}((x,y)->y, [(x,y)->0, (x,y)->1]))

# apply the 1-form α to the 1-vector 2e₂ at the point 1e₁+1e₂
julia> apply(α, KVector(2e₂), 1e₁+1e₂)

Zero form: ϕ(x,y) = ½e⁻⁽ˣ²⁺ʸ²)

# dϕ = -2*ϕ*(xdx + ydy) 
# expected result: -2*ϕ*x*e₁ + -2*ϕ*y*e₁
# -2*ϕ(0.2,0.3)*0.2*e₁ + -2*ϕ*(0.2,0.3)*0.3*e₂
julia> xy = 0.2e₁+0.3e₂

julia> ϕ(x,y) = 0.5*exp(-(x^2+y^2))

julia> α = ZForm{2}(ϕ, [(x,y)->-2.0*ϕ(x,y)*x,

Differential operator takes it from a 0-form to a 1-form

julia>  = 𝑑(α)
julia>  = sortbasis(dp)
julia> apply(dp, xy, 1.0e₁+1.0e₂) ==  -2.0*ϕ(coords(xy)...)*xy[1].x + -2.0*ϕ(coords(xy)...)*xy[2].x

See the tests for more examples.