This is a Julia package for a nonlinear model of the F16 aircraft. The aerodynamics included in this model come from the NASA Technical Report 1538, Simulator Study of Stall/Post-Stall Characteristics of a Fighter Airplane with Relaxed Longitudinal Static Stability, by Nguyen, Ogburn, Gilbert, Kibler, Brown, and Deal, Dec 1979. The model is based on Aircraft Control and Simulations, by Brian Stevens and Frank Lewis, Wiley Inter-Science, New York, 1992.

This Julia package is inspired by the MATLAB/Simulink package, and currently has the following features:

  1. Nonlinear dynamics for simulations.
  2. Trim routine for various flight conditions.
  3. Linearization about a trim point (x0,u0) using ForwardDiff.

More features will be added as we continue to develop this package.

Model Details

Detailed information is available here.

The 12 states of the system are as follows:

  1. N: North position in ft
  2. E: East position in ft
  3. h: Altitude in ft, min: 5000 ft, max: 40000 ft
  4. phi: Roll angle in rad
  5. theta: Pitch angle in rad
  6. psi: Yaw angle in rad
  7. Vt: Magnitude of total velocity in ft/s, min: 300 ft/s, max: 900 ft/s
  8. alpha: Angle of attack in rad, min: -20 deg, max: 45 deg
  9. beta: Side slip angle in rad, min: -30 deg, max: 30 deg
  10. p: Roll rate in rad/s
  11. q: Pitch rate in rad/s
  12. r: Yaw rate in rad/s

The 5 control variables are:

  1. T: Thrust in lbs, min: 1000, max: 19000
  2. dele: Elevator angle in deg, min:-25, max: 25
  3. dail: Aileron angle in deg, min:-21.5, max: 21.5
  4. drud: Rudder angle in deg, min: -30, max: 30
  5. dlef: Leading edge flap in deg, min: 0, max: 25

Actuator models are defined as:

  1. T: max |rate|: 10,000 lbs/s
  2. dele: max |rate|: 60 deg/s
  3. dail: max |rate|: 80 deg/s
  4. drud: max |rate|: 120 deg/s
  5. dlef: max |rate|: 25 deg/s

The nonlinear model of the aircraft does not include actuator dynamics. The actuator dynamics need to be modeled as LTI systems and added to the system. For example, for dele the low pass filter 1/(s/60+1) would model the actuator dynamics.


Add package as shown below.

using Pkg # Pkg must be installed

or in julia> prompt press ] to get into the Pkg REPL and type add F16Model

(@v1.6) pkg> add F16Model


using F16Model

# Define state vector
# -------------------
d2r = pi/180;
npos = 0;
epos = 0;
alt = 10000; # should be in between 5000 ft and 100000 ft
phi = 0;
theta = 0;
psi = 0;
Vt = 300;
alp = 0;
bet = 0;
p = 0;
q = 0;
r = 0;

x0 = [npos,epos,alt,phi,theta,psi,Vt,alp,bet,p,q,r];

# Define control vector
# ---------------------
T = 9000; # Thrust lbs
dele = 0; # deg elevator angle
dail = 0; # deg aileron angle
drud = 0; # deg rudder angle
dlef = 0; # deg leading edge flap angle
u0 = [T,dele,dail,drud,dlef];

# Evaluate xdot -- inplace implementation -- use this with DifferentialEquations package.
xdot1 = zeros(12);
F16Model.Dynamics!(xdot1,x0,u0); # Does not implement actuator dynamics.

# Evaluate xdot -- returns vector. Use this for linearization of dynamics, etc.
xdot2 = F16Model.Dynamics(x0,u0); #  Does not implement actuator dynamics.

# Linearize about some trim point (x0,u0)
A, B = F16Model.Linearize(x0,u0);

Trim Functions

The aircraft model can be trimmed as shown in the following examples:

# Trim the aircraft for steady-level flight at h0,V0
# xbar = trim state
# ubar = trim control
# status = status of the optimization, status = 0 means optimization found solution and (xbar, ubar) defines a valid trim  point/
# prob = data structure from IpOpt.

h0 = 10000; # ft
Vt0 = 500;   # ft/s
xbar, ubar, status, prob = F16Model.Trim(h0,Vt0); # Default is steady-level

See examples/example1.jl for other trim examples.

Control Design and Nonlinear Simulations

Please see "F16 Flight Control Example.ipynb" notebook under examples/

If the plots do not show up in the GitHub website, please download the notebook and run it. The plots should show up.