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Associated with the pair of matrices $A \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ and $B \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times m}$ is the differential Lyapunov equation:

$$ \dot{Q}(\tau) = A Q(\tau) + Q(\tau) A^* + B B^*, \quad Q(0) = 0,\quad \tau \in [0, t]. $$

$Q(t)$ is the finite Horizon controllability Gramian of $(A, B)$, over the interval $[0, t]$, and may be equivalently expressed by the function $Q(t) = G(At, B \sqrt{t})$, where

$$ G(A, B) = \int_0^1 e^{A t} B B^* e^{A^* t} \mathrm{d} t. $$

The Gramian, $G(A, B)$, is positive semi-definite and therefore has an upper triangular Cholesky factor, $U(A, B)$. This package provides algorithms for computing both $e^A$ and $U(A, B)$, without having to form $G(A, B)$ as an intermediate step. This avoids the problem of failing Cholesky factorizations when computing $G(A, B)$ directly leads to a numerically non-positive definite matrix.


Consider the Gauss-Markov process

$$ \dot{x}(t) = A x(t) + B \dot{w}(t). $$

It can be shown that the process $x$ has a transition density given by

$$ p(t + h, x \mid t, x') = \mathcal{N}\big(x; e^{A h} x', G(A h, \sqrt{h} B) \big). $$

This package offers a method to both compute the transition matrix $e^{A h}$ and a Cholesky factor of $G(A h, \sqrt{h} B)$ in a numerically robust way. This is useful for instance in so called array implementations of Gauss-Markov regression (i.e. square-root Kalman filters etc).


] FiniteHorizonGramians

Basic usage

using FiniteHorizonGramians, LinearAlgebra

n = 15
A = (I - 2.0 * tril(ones(n, n)))
B = sqrt(2.0) * ones(n, 1)
ts = LinRange(0.0, 1.0, 2^3)

method = ExpAndGram{Float64,13}()
cache = FiniteHorizonGramians.alloc_mem(A, B, method) # allocate memory for intermediate calculations
eA, U = similar(A), similar(A) # allocate memory for outputs

for t in ts
   exp_and_gram_chol!(eA, U, A, B, t, method, cache)
    # do cool stuff with eA and U here?

eA, G = exp_and_gram!(eA, similar(U), A, B, last(ts), method, cache) # we can comput the full Gramian if we prefer
G  U'U # true
eA  exp(A * last(ts)) # we also get an accurate matrix exponential, of course.
  • MatrixEquations.jl provides an algorithm for computing the Cholesky factor of infinite horizon Gramians (i.e. solutions to algebraic Lyapunov equations).
  • ExponentialUtilities.jl provides various algorithms for matrix exponentials and related quantities.