ConcurrentSim includes an extensive set of event types for various purposes. All of them are descendants of AbstractEvent. Here the following events are discussed:

  • Event
  • timeout
  • Operator

The guide to resources describes the various resource events.

Event basics

ConcurrentSim events are very similar – if not identical — to deferreds, futures or promises. Instances of the type AbstractEvent are used to describe any kind of events. Events can be in one of the following states. An event:

  • might happen (idle),
  • is going to happen (scheduled) or
  • has happened (processed).

They traverse these states exactly once in that order. Events are also tightly bound to time and time causes events to advance their state.

Initially, events are idle and the function state returns ConcurrentSim.idle.

If an event gets scheduled at a given time, it is inserted into ConcurrentSim’s event queue. The function state returns ConcurrentSim.scheduled.

As long as the event is not processed, you can add callbacks to an event. Callbacks are function having an AbstractEvent as first parameter.

An event becomes processed when ConcurrentSim pops it from the event queue and calls all of its callbacks. It is now no longer possible to add callbacks. The function state returns ConcurrentSim.processed.

Events also have a value. The value can be set before or when the event is scheduled and can be retrieved via the function value or, within a process, by yielding the event (value = @yield event).

Adding callbacks to an event

“What? Callbacks? I’ve never seen no callbacks!”, you might think if you have worked your way through the tutorial.

That’s on purpose. The most common way to add a callback to an event is yielding it from your process function (@yield event). This will add the process’ resume function as a callback. That’s how your process gets resumed when it yielded an event.

However, you can add any function to the list of callbacks as long as it accepts AbstractEvent or a descendant as first parameter:

julia> using ConcurrentSim

julia> function my_callback(ev::AbstractEvent)
         println("Called back from ", ev)
my_callback (generic function with 1 method)

julia> sim = Simulation()
ConcurrentSim.Simulation time: 0.0 active_process: nothing

julia> ev = Event(sim)
ConcurrentSim.Event 1

julia> @callback my_callback(ev)
#1 (generic function with 1 method)

julia> succeed(ev)
ConcurrentSim.Event 1

julia> run(sim)
Called back from ConcurrentSim.Event 1

Example usages of Event

The simple mechanics outlined above provide a great flexibility in the way events can be used.

One example for this is that events can be shared. They can be created by a process or outside of the context of a process. They can be passed to other processes and chained.

Below we give such an example, however this is a very low-level example and you would probably prefer to use the safer and more user-friendly Resource or Store.

using ResumableFunctions
using ConcurrentSim

mutable struct School
  class_ends :: Event
  pupil_procs :: Vector{Process}
  bell_proc :: Process
  function School(env::Simulation)
    school = new()
    school.class_ends = Event(env)
    school.pupil_procs = Process[@process pupil(env, school, i) for i=1:3]
    school.bell_proc = @process bell(env, school)
    return school

@resumable function bell(env::Simulation, school::School)
  for i=1:2
    println("starting the bell timer at t=$(now(env))")
    @yield timeout(env, 45.0)
    school.class_ends = Event(env) # the event is now idle (i.e. spent) so we need to create a new one
    println("bell is ringing at t=$(now(env))")

@resumable function pupil(env::Simulation, school::School, pupil)
  for i=1:2
    println("pupil $pupil goes to class")
    @yield school.class_ends
    println("pupil $pupil leaves class at t=$(now(env))")

env = Simulation()
school = School(env)

# output

pupil 1 goes to class
pupil 2 goes to class
pupil 3 goes to class
starting the bell timer at t=0.0
bell is ringing at t=45.0
starting the bell timer at t=45.0
pupil 1 leaves class at t=45.0
pupil 1 goes to class
pupil 2 leaves class at t=45.0
pupil 2 goes to class
pupil 3 leaves class at t=45.0
pupil 3 goes to class
bell is ringing at t=90.0
pupil 1 leaves class at t=90.0
pupil 2 leaves class at t=90.0
pupil 3 leaves class at t=90.0