The advanced diagonalization methods implemented in Diagonalizations.jl, namely, gMCA, gCCA, AJD and mAJD are solved by iterative algorithms, here also called solvers.

Solvers differ from one another in several fashions:

  • the restriction they impose on the solution(s) (orthogonal/unitary or non-singular)
  • whether they support complex data or only real data
  • whether they take as input only positive-definite (PD) matrices or all symmetric/Hermitian matrices
  • the diagonalization criterion they minimize
  • the optimization method they employ
  • the diagonalization methods they support
  • their initialization
  • whether they support multi-threading or not

To date nine solvers are implemented:

  • Orthogonal joint blind source separation (OJOB: Congedo et al., 2012๐ŸŽ“)
  • Non-orthogonal joint blind source separation (NoJOB: Congedo et al., 2012๐ŸŽ“)
  • Log-likelihood (LogLike: Pham, 2001๐ŸŽ“)
  • Log-likelihood Real (LogLikeR: Pham, 2001๐ŸŽ“)
  • Quasi-Newton Log-likelihood (QNLogLike: Ablin et al., 2019๐ŸŽ“)
  • Joint Approximate Diagonalization of Eigenmatrices (JADE: Cardoso and Souloumiac, 1996๐ŸŽ“)
  • Joint Approximate Diagonalization of Eigenmatrices max (JADEmax: Usevich, Li and Comon, 2020๐ŸŽ“)
  • Gauss Approximate Joint Diagonalization (GAJD, unpublished, from the author)
  • Gauss Log-Likelihood (GLogLike, unpublished, from the author, still experimental)

Their main characteristics and domain of application are summarized in the following table:

AlgorithmSolutionComplex dataOnly PDCriterionMulti-threadedSupported Methods
OJoBOrthogonal/Unitaryyesnoleast-squaresyesgMCA, gCCA, AJD, mAJD
NoJoBnon-singularyesnoleast-squaresyesgMCA, AJD, mAJD

using solvers

A solver is to find $m$ matrices, where $m$ depends on the sought diagonalization method (see Overview). All algorithms by default are initialized by $m$ identity matrices, with the exception of OJoB, for which, following Congedo et al. (2011)๐ŸŽ“, the $m^{th}$ solution matrix is initalized by the eigenvectors of

$\frac{1}{mk}\sum_{j=1}^m\sum_{l=1}^k C_{mjl}C_{mjl}^H$,

where $C_{mjl}$ is the cross-covariance matrix between dataset $m$ (fixed) and dataset $j$ for observation $l$. When $m=1$, for instance in the case of AJD, those are just the $k$ covariance matrices to be jointly diagonalized.

A matrix (if $m=1$) or a vector of matrices (if $m>1$) can be passed with the init argument in order to initialize the solver differently. Note that for LogLike and LogLikeR algorithms the actual approximate joint diagonalizer will be given by init*B, where B is the output of the algorithms.

tol is the tolerance for convergence of the solver. By default it is set to the square root of Base.eps of the nearest real type of the data input. If the solver encounters difficulties in converging, try setting tol in between 1e-6 and 1e-3.

Argument maxiter is the maximum number of iterations allowed to the solver. For all algorithms, by default maxiter is set to 1000 for real data and to 3000 for complex data.

If the maximum number of iteration is attained, a warning is printed in the REPL. In this case, try increasing maxiter and/or tol.


The OJoB, NoJOB and QNLogLike algorithms supports multi-threading. The methods' constructors feature the threaded optional keyword argument, which is true by default. For OJoB and NoJoB, the algorithms run in multi-threaded mode paralellising several comptations over the dimension of the input matrices $n$, if threaded is true, $2n>x$ and $x>1$, where $x$ is the number of threads Julia is instructed to use. For QNLogLike, the algorithms run in multi-threaded mode paralellising several computations over the number of matrices $k$, if threaded is true, $2k>x$ and $x>1$.

Before running these methods you may want to set the number of threades Julia is instructed to use to the number of logical CPUs of your machine. Besides being optionally multi-threaded, OJoB and NoJoB algorithms heavely use BLAS. Before using these methods you may want to set BLAS.set_num_threads(Sys.CPU_THREADS) to the number of logical CPUs of your machine. If you are using any of the package written by the author, all this is done automatically. See these notes.